Supplement 6.

COI Universe: Technical summary

The COI Universe is a model of how the universe could have been Created from the Outside, moving Inwards (COI) at the speed of light. This was first released as Appendix C4 in the book: “Page 1: God’s timetable”. This model evolved quickly after the book release. It can now be simplified a little to reveal the overall picture more clearly and briefly.


Introduction

The COI Universe model was originally released in the paperback book as Appendix C4, within only a few months of my first seeing it. Technical additions and improvements were given in Supplement S3 and S3a. Further Biblical extensions were discussed in Supplement S4. This summary aims to present the physical picture without some of the wordy clarifications and background which can now be read in these earlier descriptions. I also wanted to skip lengthy discussions about the failure of the Big Bang model.

This summary concentrates on the physical analogues, that is, real observable, repeatable, physically understood processes that are similar to the processes that might have happened as the universe was created. An initial state is proposed and the goal is to show that present day observations of the universe are consistent with this initial state and the proposed processes.

The starting point

The COI Universe model starts with a sphere or bubble of energy, frozen in time. I refer to this as Pre-Time Energy (PTE) and it is a spherical volume of energy before time began. Dimensionally, this volume can be pictured as a matter–space universe. How this volume of energy came into existence is a philosophical question since it is before the beginning of time, though I have made some suggestions in S4 and S3. The universe, as we now see it, appears when time starts. Time is now an operator that transforms the volume of energy into space–time and matter. This process starts at the outside of the sphere of energy and moves inwards at the speed of light.

So, why at the speed of light? Well, every real physical process is bounded by the speed of light, so naturally this process is also so bounded. I called this a bubble of energy because a bubble is surrounded by a thin film. We have a precedent for seeing boundaries in space time as event horizons around black holes. In the case of black holes we see time stop as the event horizon is approached. Effectively the COI universe sees time start at the horizon defined by the film around the bubble.

Energy for space–time and galaxies

The thin film or membrane of a bubble also helps the COI model picture how energy might diffuse out of this bubble to fuel the generation of space–time, but, as energy builds up inside it, the film would occasionally rupture to release a myriad of smaller bubbles which give rise to the stars in a galaxy. There is another more technical analogue to this process. We understand how particles can tunnel (diffuse) through a potential barrier, but once energetic enough, the particles will spill over the barrier.

So far I have likened the film around the bubble to an event horizon and to a potential barrier. I now want to liken it to a wave. Initially I thought that the wave itself might hold the energy to form the universe. That remains an option, but I prefer to picture the wave as formed by the surplus energy being released as it surges into the centre of the universe. This wave eventually builds up until it spills the energy over, just like an ocean wave spills over periodically. When water spills over from an ocean wave it comes up behind the wave as a lot of bubbles, and again we can picture a galaxy being formed.

Galaxy and star formation

Turbulent fluid flow often gives rise to vortices. Bubbles of PTE released when the film ruptures, or the wave spills over, would quite intuitively reflect this vortex in the distribution of stars in a galaxy. So it is no surprise that spiral galaxies are common. This is a very important feature of the COI model because there are many properties of spiral galaxies that otherwise cannot be explained. For example, they are spinning too fast and the spiral structure should long ago have been lost. Further, an aggregation process from clouds of matter cannot explain the clumping of matter into galaxies.

OK, so the galactic structure is simply the result of the initial distribution of the smaller bubbles released when the film ruptures, or the wave spills. Each of these “small” bubbles ends up as a star or solar system. This is something I missed in the book where I suggested white holes might be the mechanism, but during S3, the obvious dawned on me. These small bubbles continue to shrink at the speed of light, just as the original big bubble did. As this happens they may also spill or release yet smaller bubbles that will form planets and moons.

Now keep in mind that all I am doing at the moment is continuing my initial premise that these bubbles of PTE shrink at the speed of light, and once the energy level builds up, they spill it out as smaller bubbles. So they are shrinking and dividing. Once you get down to planetary and star size, the final division is so rapid that you end up with a cloud of microscopic bubbles. Now you are getting down into that quantum level where I unashamedly assert that the magic happens. At the quantum level impossible things seem to happen. Things at this level are controlled more by probability than deterministically. So I simply postulate that at this level the energy converts to sub-atomic, even sub-sub-atomic particles. The resultant cloud of particles will be gravitationally bound and bingo — there is your planet or star. This magic happens in seconds, not millions of years.

As these particles in the planet and star sized clouds collapse, more complex elements form but, they will also super heat, which will slow the compression process. Planets will cool down faster and compress and, depending on the somewhat random composition, they will develop their own specific chemistry. (Gas giant or rocky.) At the centre, the star will cool down slower, being larger, but eventually, as it compresses, its nuclear chemistry will cut in. This is flame-on!

When the star does ignite, a lot of side effects will be felt by the planets. Those not protected by a magnetic field, or too close, may lose their atmosphere and even water covering due to the solar winds. Small changes in orbits will then occur. Planetoids in similar orbits may collide to end up as asteroid belts, or be captured as moons. This is another big plus for the COI model, because this can explain a lot of structure we see in our own solar system and some features of remote solar systems that we have been able to glimpse, like gas giants way to close to their sun.

Unusual structures

One of the other features seen in our galaxy is nebulas. Excluding remnants of exploded stars, these show very strange and diffuse structure. I propose that if several star sized bubbles were close enough together, they would join, just as I occasionally see when blowing bubbles through a ring of soap film. The merged bubbles would have no distinct centre about which to contract. Hence they never end up as distinct planets and suns, but rather as clouds of sometimes gas and sometimes dust. In the other articles I have suggested links to pictures of nebulas that seem to confirm this proposition.

Red giants are stars that seem to have expanded quickly. It was proposed that this is because of changes in the helium/hydrogen ratio. In the COI model, the initial ratio of gases in the cloud of matter forming a star is somewhat random. So red giants are effectively formed as, or close to, red giants and you don’t need billions of years to convert hydrogen to helium.

S3 discusses further weird things like the alignment of planetary nebulae and the bulge in spiral galaxies. It also speculates about the CMB source under the COI model.

Distant starlight

If you look at a galaxy from earth that is say 100 million light years away, then under the COI Model, it must have materialised a little over 100 million years ago, as the wave (event horizon) passed that distance out from the centre. The initial light from this galaxy followed the wave inwards, arriving here just as our galaxy materialised. After say 1,000 years here, the light from that same galaxy now arriving here would be the light that that galaxy emitted when it was also 1,000 years old, neglecting some general relativistic effects. Generalising this, when we look at galaxies of varying distances, we see them all at the same age as our own galaxy. This is consistent with the images of the most distant galaxies taken using the Hubble space telescope. This is also unexpected under other models.

The other feature of distant galaxies is that their light is redshifted, seemingly in proportion to their distance away. The COI model offers two explanations for this redshift. One is simply a proposal that there might be an outward velocity imparted to galaxies as they are expelled from the bubble. It can be shown that the rate of flow of energy out of the bubble decreases as the bubble shrinks. Hence the outward velocity decreases and the well-known Doppler Effect predicts a decreasing redshift as the centre is approached. The other mechanism involves General Relativity, and is described in Redshift calculations under the description of Hubble’s constant. Briefly, we know that light travelling against a gravitational field is redshifted. But all the light currently reaching the earth from other galaxies has been travelling against the ever increasing gravitational pull from the outside of the universe.

Recognising that matter materialises from the outside in, also contributes to the appearance of an expanding universe since newly created galaxies first come under the influence of outer galaxies already created. But this story has a funny twist.

Galactic distribution

Galaxies are not evenly distributed. They occur in clusters surrounding huge voids. The clusters are spread out like filaments between these voids and it has been likened to foam on the surface of water. This is a major problem for other models but it is a natural consequence in the COI model. When we use the wave analogy we see that galaxies are formed as the wave spills its energy. Once the energy has spilled over at one location, the spill point moves laterally. This process gives rise to a series of galaxies, exactly as observed. It is not a fractal — it is simply the result of a real physical process which the COI model hints at.

Galaxies have also been observed to have a discrete variation in distance as they get further out from our galaxy. This was first described as a quantised redshift. These small finite steps in redshift correspond to steps of a about one million light years. This affirms that our galaxy, the Milky Way, is very close to the centre of the universe, which is another feature of the COI model. But these steps are also a simple consequence of the physical process where energy builds up in the wavefront as it surges into the centre of the universe and hence, it will periodically spill off the surplus.

Summary and Conclusion

Well folks, I did not once use the “god” word. The model starts with an assumption about a bubble of energy which is transformed into space–time and matter from the outside in. The same assumption is used to picture the creation of a galaxy of stars when a myriad of smaller bubbles are released through some rupture in the film, typically imparting the galactic structure via a vortex. I’m still just working through my initial assumption and using every day physical analogues. Once you have energy wrapped in real time, it has to manifest itself as particles, either radiation or matter, so my final step as the small star-bubbles shrink, divide and disintegrate is not that unexpected even though it’s totally new to our thinking.

What I have just summarised is what I call virtualisation. It happens on the edge of space time, but from then on, it has to behave according to the known and repeatable present day laws of physics. The Big Bang theory has its own virtualisation phase, which roughly ends when its expansion phase ends. After that, it does not do a very good job of predicting subsequent behaviour under the known laws of physics, and in the present day it still requires unknown dark matter and dark energy to keep it going. The virtualisation phase of the COI model finishes with all the galaxies, suns, planets, moons, nebulas in place, perhaps a little super-heated. They continue to exist without need for supernatural workarounds like dark matter and dark energy. A plethora of cosmic observations are consistent with the COI model predictions and not with the Big Bang.

So why not embrace the COI Model? Perhaps you will say that we need to crunch a little more maths to be sure. Good answer, but that is not the problem. An earth centred universe has already been rejected by secular science simply because it reeks too much of “god”. But note that it is not the science that rejects it, but the scientists. It is not the facts but the philosophy that bars it. Well, though my personal philosophy is clear, the COI model offers a science only explanation. Whatever technical success the COI model achieves, its beauty is that it challenges a paradigm that is constraining modern science and stopping scientists from finding the real mechanisms involved in the formation of the universe.

What next?

The COI Universe Overview provides technical, biblical and philosophical follow up to this introduction.


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